Inhibit cell wall synthesis: Mechanism: Target enzymes involved in cell wall synthesis. Example: Penicillins (e.g., amoxicillin) and cephalosporins (e.g., ceftriaxone).

Depolarize the cell membrane: Mechanism: Bind to the bacterial membrane, causing disruption and leakage. Example: Polymyxins (e.g., colistin).

Inhibit protein synthesis: Mechanism: Bind to bacterial ribosomes and interfere with protein synthesis. Example: Aminoglycosides (e.g., gentamicin), tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline), and macrolides (e.g., erythromycin).

Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis: Mechanism: Interfere with DNA or RNA synthesis in bacteria. Example: Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) inhibit DNA replication and rifampin inhibits RNA synthesis.

Inhibit metabolic pathways: Mechanism: Target specific enzymes involved in metabolic pathways. Example: Sulfonamides (e.g., sulfamethoxazole) inhibit folic acid synthesis, an essential metabolic pathway in bacteria.